Title Aquaculture Feed and Seafood Quality
Authers Ronald W. HARDY and Cheng-Sheng LEE
Keywords seafood quality, safety, feed, nutritional contents, sensory attributes
Citation Bull. Fish. Res. Agen. No.31, 43-50, 2010
Abstract
Seafood continues to be an important protein source in many less developed countries, and over the past decade, the proportion of per capita seafood consumption produced by aquaculture has steadily grown to nearly half. Capture fisheries production has declined in recent years, and projections are for seafood landings to remain constant or decline further in the future. As a result, aquaculture production must increase to meet the expected future demand for seafood. The challenges for aquaculture in the 21st century will include not only quantity to meet increasing demand but also maintaining seafood quality for health consideration. Consumers expect safe and nutritious seafood.
 Seafood quality includes characteristics such as appearance, color, texture, and taste as well as very low levels of contaminants and high levels of important nutrients. Unlike seafood harvested from the sea, the quality of aquaculture products can be controlled by many factors from the production phase to the dinner table. This report will discuss how factors such as pond management and feeding contribute to seafood quality.
 Since farmers manipulate all nutrient inputs to farmed fish via the feed, the nutrient composition of farmed fish can be controlled to some degree by altering the composition of feed. For example, the color of the skin or, in salmonids, muscle tissue, can be modified by the source and quantity of carotenoid pigments, such as astaxanthin, in the feed. Replacing fish meal and oil with vegetable protein and oils or changing the oil content in fish feed will change the odor and fatty acid composition, and consequently the taste of farmed fish. Muscle lipid content can affect the texture of fish fillets as well. As far as food safety is concerned, wild fish are exposed to contaminants via their prey whereas farmed fish contaminants come from feed. Levels of contaminants in fish feeds can be closely monitored and feed formulations can be altered to reduce contaminant exposure of farmed fish to very low levels. This paper is an overview of a presentation at the workshop “Seafood Quality and Aquaculture” held in October, 2007 in Hawaii related to aquaculture feed. Manipulating the nutrient composition or boosting a selected chemical component in farmed fish products can increase the value of products and also deliver health benefits to consumers.
URI http://www.fra.affrc.go.jp/bulletin/bull/bull31/31-2-5.pdf