Title The Political Economics of United States Marine Aquaculture
Authers Gunnar KNAPP
Keywords Aquaculture, regulation, policies
Citation Bull. Fish. Res. Agen. No.35, 51-63, 2012
Government leasing and regulatory policies are critically important for the development of marine aquaculture. In much of the United States, local, state or national policies constrain the development of marine aquaculture to a scale far below its economic potential. Two extreme examples are the State of Alaska’s ban on all finfish farming, and the absence of an enabling regulatory framework for aquaculture in offshore federal waters. This paper suggests five broad reasons for which U.S. polices have been unfavorable towards marine aquaculture: (1) Marine aquaculture is new and small; (2) Fish and marine waters are traditionally public resources; (3) Many Americans perceive potential negative effects of marine aquaculture without offsetting positive effects; (4) NGOs have systematically and effectively opposed marine aquaculture; and (5) The governance system for leasing and regulation is structurally biased against U.S. marine aquaculture. The paper suggests four broad strategies for addressing these political challenges: (1) Fix real problems; (2) Demonstrate benefits; (3) Argue effectively; and (4) Reform governance.
URI http://www.fra.affrc.go.jp/bulletin/bull/bull35/35-7.pdf